New York Times
May 10, 2006
President Bush's selection of Gen. Michael V. Hayden
to be the next director of the Central Intelligence
Agency sets the stage for new wrangling with the Pentagon,
which is rapidly expanding its own global spying and
terrorist-tracking operations, both long considered
Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld's drive to broaden
the military's clandestine reconnaissance and man-hunting
missions is Stephen A. Cambone, the Pentagon's intelligence
czar and one of Mr. Rumsfeld's most trusted aides,
whose low public profile masks his influence as one
of the nation's most powerful intelligence officials.
his office was created three years ago, Mr. Cambone
and his deputy, Lt. Gen. William G. Boykin, a former
commander of the Army's elite Delta Force, have carried
out a wide-ranging restructuring of the Pentagon's
sprawling intelligence bureaucracy.
C.I.A. has the lead role in managing ''human intelligence,''
or spying in the government. Whether by design or
circumstance, though, much of the growth in the military's
spy missions has come in the Special Operations Command,
which reports to Mr. Rumsfeld and falls outside the
orbit controlled by John D. Negroponte, the director
of national intelligence.
one of the boldest new missions, the Pentagon has
sharply increased the number of clandestine teams
of Defense Intelligence Agency personnel and Special
Operations forces conducting secret counterterrorism
missions in Iraq, Afghanistan and other foreign countries.
Using a broad definition of its current authority
to conduct ''traditional military activities'' and
''prepare the battlefield,'' the Pentagon has dispatched
teams to gather information about potential foes well
before any shooting starts.
an effort to enhance military interrogations, Mr.
Cambone is also overseeing the politically sensitive
task of rewriting the Army's field manual. Just last
week, he and other top Pentagon officials briefed
senior senators on a Pentagon proposal to have one
set of interrogation techniques for enemy prisoners
of war and another, presumably more coercive, set
for the suspected terrorists imprisoned at Guantánamo
Bay, Cuba, said Senate aides, who were granted anonymity
because the discussions were confidential.
the Pentagon Tuesday, Mr. Rumsfeld voiced support
for General Hayden's nomination and dismissed any
reported rivalries with his intelligence brethren
as ''theoretical conspiracies'' that were ''all off
the mark.'' He added, ''There's no power play taking
place in Washington.''
of the Pentagon's new initiatives have been previously
disclosed. But in interviews, more than two dozen
officials from intelligence agencies, the Defense
Department and Congress provided new details of what
they described as a strong effort by the Pentagon
to assert a much broader role in the clandestine world
Cambone insisted that the Pentagon was working closely
with the C.I.A. and Mr. Negroponte's office, saying
that he held a 20-minute conference call with officials
from a dozen intelligence agencies every Tuesday and
Thursday morning. But Mr. Cambone said the military's
thirst for information to help soldiers on the ground
after the Sept. 11 attacks had fueled the Pentagon's
intelligence-gathering expansion, particularly against
shadowy terrorist cells.
a lot more to do today than on Sept. 10,'' Mr. Cambone
said in an interview in his office last Friday, just
before Mr. Bush's announcement. ''The department has
taken the responsibility to better prepare itself
and to be prepared to operate in environments we encounter.
Is that different than in the past? I think the difference
is more the amount of activity as opposed to the activity
Pentagon has always been a behemoth in the intelligence
world, largely because it controlled agencies with
multibillion-dollar budgets like the National Security
Agency and National Reconnaissance Office that are
responsible for eavesdropping and satellites. What
is different now is that the Pentagon is pushing deeper
into human intelligence.
C.I.A. has always been a much smaller organization
than the Pentagon that served both the military and
senior policy makers in Washington, including the
president. But after the Sept. 11 attacks, the Pentagon
felt it had to step in to fulfill many of its own
additional intelligence needs that the C.I.A. could
activity has stirred criticism from some lawmakers
who express concern that the Pentagon is creating
a parallel intelligence-gathering network independent
from the C.I.A. or other American authorities, and
one that encroaches on the C.I.A.'s realm.
still harbor concerns that some things are being done
under the rubric of preparing the battlefield that
I'd consider to be intelligence-collection activities,
are being run separately and are feeding a planning
apparatus that's not well understood by Congress,''
said Representative Jane Harman of California, the
ranking Democrat on the House Intelligence Committee.
Hayden, while seeking to play down any turf war with
the Pentagon, acknowledged some skirmishes over staff.
The new law creating Mr. Negroponte's job gave the
director the authority to transfer personnel from
individual intelligence agencies into joint centers
or other agencies to speed the integration of the
civilian and military intelligence communities. But
Mr. Rumsfeld made that process more difficult, some
lawmakers said, by issuing a directive last November
that required ''the concurrence'' of Mr. Cambone before
any transfers could take place.
Hayden said in a telephone interview last Thursday
that while the Pentagon adopted every one of his suggested
changes to the 11-page document, the timing of its
release just a few months after Mr. Negroponte's office
was established ''created a horrible optic.'' On the
personnel issue, General Hayden acknowledged that
''there is genuine overlap'' that will have to be
resolved ''one step at a time.''
Susan Collins, a Maine Republican who played a chief
role in writing the intelligence overhaul, criticized
the directive as a Department of Defense power grab.
''The issuance of the directive sent exactly the wrong
signal,'' Ms. Collins said.
said it implied a questioning of Mr. Negroponte's
authority ''over those agencies that I find to be
contrary to the intent of the legislation,'' adding,
''D.O.D. is very eager to fill any vacuum or even
create one, if necessary.''
central figure in how this debate plays out is Mr.
Cambone, a 53-year-old native of Highland, N.Y., who
as undersecretary of defense for intelligence oversees
130 full-time employees and more than 100 contractors.
His office's responsibilities include domestic counterintelligence,
long-range threat planning and budgeting for new technologies.
Cambone emphasized that his office did not collect
or analyze intelligence itself; it oversees those
who do, assessing the quality of what organizations
like the N.S.A. and the National Geospatial-Intelligence
Agency collect and analyze.
say that Mr. Cambone, who holds a doctorate in political
science from Claremont Graduate School, is a skilled
bureaucrat who can dominate a briefing with his mastery
of complex subjects but can also rub people the wrong
way with what some say is his abrasive style.
has a strong personality and can be a lightning rod
for controversy,'' said Barry Blechman, a longtime
friend who is a member of the Defense Policy Board.
Cambone draws much of his influence from the close
working relationship he has developed with Mr. Rumsfeld,
beginning in the late 1990's when Mr. Cambone served
as staff director for independent commissions on space
and ballistic missile threats that Mr. Rumsfeld headed
when both men were out of government.
Cambone was at Mr. Rumsfeld's elbow on Sept. 11, taking
notes from his boss to look into Iraq's possible role
in the attacks. Later, he served in important jobs
forming policy and deciding which weapons systems
to buy or cancel. ''He's Rumsfeld's go-to guy,'' said
Dov S. Zakheim, the Pentagon's comptroller until May
a sign of the importance Mr. Rumsfeld places on the
intelligence czar position, last December he quietly
revamped the civilian line of succession in the Pentagon
hierarchy in the event the secretary and deputy secretary
died or were incapacitated. He put the undersecretary
for intelligence next in line. The secretary of the
Army had traditionally been No. 3.
few issues have stirred the passions of lawmakers
and intelligence officials like the Pentagon's expanding
question in my mind is with such a large expansion,
are some of these people really qualified?'' said
W. Patrick Lang, a former head of the Defense Human
the Afghan war, elite Special Operations forces have
worked with C.I.A. counterparts to kill or capture
fighters for Al Qaeda or other terrorists. But Mr.
Rumsfeld, frustrated with the C.I.A.'s limited resources
to provide fresh targets, has pushed the military
to develop more of its own intelligence abilities.
year, Congress gave the Pentagon important new authority
to fight terrorism by authorizing Special Operations
forces for the first time to spend $25 million a year
through 2007 to pay informants and recruit foreign
money was requested by the Pentagon and the commander
of Special Operations forces as part of a broader
effort to make the military less reliant on the C.I.A.
In the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, Special Operations
troops had to wait for the C.I.A. to pay informants
and could not always count on timely support, the
Hayden, who is Mr. Negroponte's deputy and formerly
served as head of the N.S.A., is seen by many intelligence
officials and lawmakers as independent and forceful
enough to lay down markers with the Pentagon. In the
interview, General Hayden said it had become more
difficult to distinguish between traditional secret
intelligence missions carried out by the military
and those by the C.I.A.
a blurring of functions here,'' General Hayden said.
''My intent is that we'll work this out on a case
by case basis.''
the Pentagon, Mr. Cambone said American troops were
now more likely to be working with indigenous forces
in countries like Iraq or Afghanistan to combat stateless
terrorist organizations and needed as much flexibility
as possible. ''We're lending support of a very different
kind than you might have in the past,'' Mr. Cambone
said. ''It's a very different world in which you're